There are three phases of tooth movement: the initial phase, which is characterized by rapid movement after the application of force; followed by a lag period, where little or no movement, and the last phase, where gradual or sudden increase of movement occurs .
The early phase of tooth movement involves acute inflammatory responses characterized by leucocytes migrating out of blood capillaries and producing cytokines,which stimulates the excretion of prostaglandins and growth factors . The acute phase is followed by the chronic phase that involves the proliferation of fibroblast, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and alveolar bone marrow cells remodeling process.
Dr Wahba a lutz dentist says, “Nowadays, there is an increased tendency for researches to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand for adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time”. Orthodontic tooth movement occurs in the presence of a mechanical stimuli sequenced by remodeling of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament (PDL). At St. Lukes Dental bone remodeling is a process of both bone resorption on the pressure site and bone formation on the tension site.Orthodontic tooth movement can be controlled by the size of the applied force and the biological responses from the PDL. The force applied on the teeth will cause changes in the microenvironment around the PDL due to alterations of blood flow, leading to the secretion. Unfortunately, long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, and root resorption. This increases the demand to find the best method to increase tooth movement with the least possible disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to view the successful approaches in tooth movement and to highlight the newest technique in tooth movement. A total of 74 articles were reviewed in tooth movement and related discipline from 1959 to 2013. There is a high amount of researches done on the biological method for tooth movement; unfortunately, the majority of them were done on animals. Cytokine, PTH, vitamin D, and RANKL/RANK/ OPG show promising results; on the other hand, relaxin does not accelerate tooth movement, but increases the tooth mobility. Low-level laser therapy has shown positive outcome, but further investigation should be done for the best energy and duration to achieve the highest success rate. Lutz dental has surgical approach has the most predictable outcomes but with limited application due to its aggressiveness. Piezocision technique is considered one of the best surgical approaches because it poses good periodontal tissue response and excellent aesthetic outcome. Due to the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, further investigations should be done to determine the best method to accelerate tooth movement.
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